Vehicle information technology
JARI previously developed the Probe-Car Information System and promoted the development of related international standards. In line with the progress of IT in recent years, JARI has been engaged in surveys, research studies and international standardization activities related to big data, vehicle interface standardization, security and privacy.
Development of Probe-Car Information System and related international standards
JARI launched development work on the Probe-Car Information System around 2000 as a joint project with universities and private-sector companies. The first private-sector service was rolled out in 2003, and the next step was to initiate development work on a centerless probe data system in 2006. In this system, each vehicle functions as a probe data center, with intervehicle communication and road-vehicle communication capabilities used to exchange probe data, which are stored and analyzed to produce useful information such as traffic reports. A feasibility study was conducted in fiscal 2006, and a high-speed mobile intelligent module was developed in a next-generation robot R&D project in 2007-09. Then, a centerless probe using dedicated short-range communication in the 700 MHz band was developed in 2010. Through these centerless probe development projects, the system was developed and its practical utility was verified.
JARI’s activities for the Probe-Car Information System
Schematic of centerless probe data service concept
Remarkable advances have been seen in IT & consumer electronics (CE) in recent years, which are expected to have a significant impact on the automotive industry in the years ahead. Hurdles to bringing software into vehicles have been lowered in one stroke especially by advances in higher speed wireless communication technologies such as mobile phones and Wi-Fi, flat rate plans for sending data via mobile phones, and the explosive diffusion of smartphones.
The existing Probe-Car Information System is mainly designed to provide information to vehicles in the form of traffic reports about congestion and other conditions, based on data collected concerning vehicle positions and traveling speeds. As a result of the lessening of limitations related to data transmission volumes and communication costs, it is now possible to collect a variety of data from vehicles using sensors to detect the surrounding environment. It is expected that such “big data” can be utilized in various useful ways.
Vehicle interface standardization
ISO/TC 204 has been working on developing a vehicle interface (gateway) standard since 2008 to facilitate the collection of various types of data from vehicles. Beginning in 2013, joint meetings have been held with TC22 to discuss certain aspects of the standard.
Meanwhile, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the standards body for Internet and Web technologies, formed the Automotive and Web Platform Business Group in 2013 for the purpose of standardizing Web technologies targeted at automobiles. The first priority taken up for discussion by the group is to standardize a Vehicle Data API specification, which is currently being examined by several organizations. JARI is participating in this activity and is engaged in collecting information from the standpoint of how to utilize vehicle data effectively, while still ensuring the safety of vehicles. JARI plans to make the information available to everyone in due course.
Security technology must be implemented to ensure the safety of vehicles when collecting vehicle data. This is especially necessary today because the recent use of smartphone applications, among other things, has led to increasing situations where vehicles are connected to open networks. This heightens the risk that vehicle safety could be threatened by malware (viruses and other malicious software) attacks, which were not of much concern in the past. In view of this situation, JARI intends to examine what security measures are desirable for vehicles from the standpoint of protection in an open network environment.
International standard for privacy protection
Protection of privacy is also an issue that is as important as security. JARI previously worked together with Keio University and others to develop ISO 24100:2010 that states the basic principles for privacy protection in probe vehicle information systems. At present, JARI is also collaborating with Keio University and other organizations in activities to establish ISO PWI 16461 that stipulates evaluation criteria for visualizing the level of privacy protection in every constituent element of probe vehicle information systems.
Once big data have been collected, the data are analyzed according to each individual purpose, so there is the issue of who has the responsibility for ensuring privacy and at what juncture. This is an issue that needs to be examined in the days ahead.
As a result of increasing opportunities for vehicles to be connected to the external world, the inherent possibilities of such connections should be pursued along with identifying potential issues and investigating effective countermeasures. JARI intends to gather information around the world on related matters and actively participate in international standardization activities, among other efforts.
Research studies concerning ITS industry trends
Since fiscal 1998, the ITS Research Division has continued to survey the technologies and related industry trends supporting ITS. Besides conducting independent in-house studies, JARI also analyzes the results of questionnaires and interviews in cooperation with ITS-related central government ministries and agencies, organizations, companies and others. Issues of concern are identified along with possible directions to be taken in future work, with the aim of eliciting views and ideas from a broad spectrum of related persons. JARI’s efforts to present the latest trends as well as extensive coverage of ITS in general and frank proposals have been well received, and this information is being used in all quarters.
Activities of the research study group for ITS industry trends
Nature of studies
JARI is continuing to conduct studies in fields pertaining to the basic elements of ITS, including driver information systems and safe driving support systems, among others. JARI also undertakes surveys in fields that seem likely to become the new seeds of ITS, including the efforts being made to penetrate EVs for improving environmental quality and the spread of smartphones.
(1) Environment surrounding the ITS industry
The global economy and trends in the automotive industry itself are major factors that influence projections of the prospects for future development of the ITS market. Accordingly, JARI presents commentary on social circumstances based on domestic economic trends.
(2) Policy measures concerning ITS
The ITS industry differs greatly from other industries in terms of the importance of collaboration between the public and private sectors. This collaboration represents a crucial factor for the promotion of ITS. For that reason, JARI endeavors to explain the related policy measures of Japanese government ministries and agencies as well as national strategies that underlie policy measures for promoting the Japanese economy and the advancement of science and technology.
(3) ITS concerning the provision of information to drivers and others
JARI prepares market forecasts for car navigation systems and personal navigation devices (PNDs). In addition, JARI also provides information on the latest trends in telematics services and the impact of smartphone diffusion on driver information systems, among other topics of interest.
(4) New developments in ITS Spot services
The deployment of ITS Spot services on nearly all expressways nationwide in Japan was completed by fiscal 2011. JARI provides information on the efforts being made to penetrate ITS Spot services, consisting of dynamic route guidance, safe driving support and ETC, and on the issues to be addressed in encouraging further penetration.
(5) ITS related safe driving support systems
JARI provides information on policy measures for promoting the diffusion of safe driving support systems and prepares market forecasts for collision damage reduction systems, which have spread rapidly in recent years. In addition, JARI also provides information on the vehicle platooning and autonomous driving system technologies developed in the Energy-Saving ITS Initiative, a 5-year project to fiscal 2012, as well as on autonomous driving trends in other countries.
Market forecast for collision damage reduction systems
(6) EV, PHEV and HEV trends and use of ITS to popularize them
JARI presents information on the policy measures of the Japanese government and local governments to popularize EVs, as well as on EV diffusion, technical trends in other countries, and efforts under way to implement EV charging infrastructure that makes use of IT and ITS technologies.
(7) Activities for utilizing big data
JARI provides an overview of so-called big data, notably the explosive increase in the volumes of data since the advent of the Internet, as well as information on activities being promoted to utilize big data effectively. JARI also provides information on probe vehicle information systems, representing one approach to using big data in vehicles, and on standardization activities being undertaken toward practical uses of vehicle information.
Research studies concerning ITS R&D/standardization
Research studies concerning standardization of ITS in-vehicle systems
Vigorous activities have been undertaken globally in recent years to develop and standardize cooperative systems that use intervehicle communication or road-vehicle communication capabilities to surpass the limitations of individual drivers or onboard sensors. Europe, the U.S. and Japan are engaged in fierce competition to develop and deploy such systems.
JARI surveys R&D projects and other activities pertaining to vehicles and ITS in Europe and the U.S. and analyzes the strategies being pursued there. The results obtained encourage the development of products having high international competitiveness in terms of performance, quality and cost.
Specifically, JARI studies R&D/standardization trends in Europe and the U.S. concerning the information transmitted in cooperative systems and, based on the results, conducts surveys regarding standardization activities in Japan.
Functionality of next-generation in-vehicle system
The development of international standards is a crucial factor in enhancing the international competitiveness of industry and products. ISO/TC 204 is carrying out activities for developing international standards related to ITS. Activities to standardize cooperative systems for providing safe driving support and other forms of driver assistance are moving ahead under the leadership of Europe and the U.S.
JARI serves as the secretariat of ISO/TC 204/WG1 (Architecture and Terminology) and supports the related standardization activities in Japan and abroad. In addition to promoting discussion of Japan’s draft standard proposals, JARI also actively participates in the activities of ISO/TC 204/WG16 (Wide Area Communication) and ISO/TC 204/WG17 (Nomadic Devices), among other working groups.
International standardization activities concerning ITS
Research on uses of IT & CE technologies in ITS
Moves have been under way in recent years to make vehicles safer, more convenient and more comfortable by using IT and consumer electronics (CE) technologies that have become increasingly more sophisticated and widespread, as typified by the Internet. Meanwhile, the protection of personal data and the assurance of security have also become critical issues.
JARI initiated studies early on concerning personal data protection and the assurance of security, making use of the knowledge gained regarding probe vehicle information protection that we have been involved with since fiscal 2002. Those studies were conducted simultaneously with ones concerning possible uses of IT and CE technologies in ITS. JARI is continuing to conduct activities aimed at achieving such uses in collaboration with the efforts being made by the automotive industry.
Uses of IT & CE technologies in ITS
Research studies concerning electronification of vehicles
Along with the increasing electronification of vehicles, various issues have surfaced such as higher manufacturing costs, insufficient manpower for product development, and quality problems, among others. Against this backdrop, European companies are taking steps to improve the development process and to standardize in-vehicle software, networks and other products, while also keeping in mind vehicle markets in emerging economies.
Focusing on the further electronification of vehicles, JARI surveys technical trends from the standpoints of performance, reliability, cost and development efficiency, among other aspects. In addition, JARI also surveys the actual status of related R&D projects and strategies involving industry-academia collaboration in Europe and the U.S.. JARI is working to identify issues to be addressed for maintaining and enhancing the international competitiveness of the Japanese automotive industry in the years ahead.
Conceptual representation of current in-vehicle E/E systems (onboard ECUs)
Research studies on a roadmap to tomorrow’s motorized society
In order to develop and penetrate attractive ITS services efficiently, it is important for the persons involved to pursue activities with a shared vision of the desired motorized society and of the roadmap and milestones leading to it in the future.
JARI has prepared a vision of tomorrow’s motorized society based on the results of studies on ITS R&D/standardization activities and the results of surveys concerning trends in the market environment surrounding the automotive industry, ITS and related policy measures. JARI is examining an action plan for resolving various technical issues and social system issues in order to present proposals for ushering in the motorized society desired in the future and encouraging efforts to make it a reality.
JARI is also proceeding with related activities focused on specific objectives in cooperation with ITS related organizations, including studies concerning an action plan for developing and deploying cooperative systems that have international competitiveness.
Action Plan WG12 Version 3.0